Wednesday, August 09, 2017

A Detailed Look At The Digital Divide It Is Well Worth Being Aware Of. Lots Of Information!


This appeared a few days ago:

Measuring Australia's digital divide: the Australian digital inclusion index 2017

01 Aug 2017
The 2017 ADII provides the most comprehensive picture of Australia’s online participation to date.
DOI 10.4225/50/596473db69505

Description

The ADII has been created to measure the level of digital inclusion across the Australian population and to monitor this level over time. Using data collected by Roy Morgan Research, the ADII has been developed through a collaborative partnership between RMIT University, Swinburne University of Technology, and Telstra.
The ADII was first published in 2016, providing the most comprehensive picture of Australia’s online participation to date. The ADII measures three vital dimensions of digital inclusion: Access, Affordability, and Digital Ability. It shows how these dimensions change over time, according to people’s social and economic circumstances, as well as across geographic locations. Scores are allocated to particular geographic regions and sociodemographic groups, over a four-year period (2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017). Higher scores mean greater digital inclusion.
Access is about how and where we access the internet, the kinds of devices we have, and how much data we can use. Affordability is about how much data we get for our dollar, and how much we spend on internet services as a proportion of our income. Digital Ability is about our skill levels, what we actually do online, our attitudes towards technology, and our confidence in using it. Taken together, these measures give us a unique, multi-faceted picture of digital inclusion.
The ADII compiles numerous variables into a score ranging from 0 to 100, with 100 representing a hypothetically perfect level of digital Access, Affordability, and Ability. Australias overall national score has increased from 52.7 in 2014 to 56.5 in 2017 (a 3.8-point increase over four years). Australia’s overall performance indicates a moderate level of digital inclusion, with mixed progress across different ADII dimensions, geographic areas, and sociodemographic groups.

PUBLICATION DETAILS

Resource Type: 
DOI:  10.4225/50/596473db69505
Pagination: 47 p.
Alternative Title: The Australian digital inclusion index 2017
Here is the link:
The Executive Summary is really useful.

Executive Summary

Australians go online to access a growing range of education, information, government, and community services. Increasingly,
they also participate in online communities and create digital content. But some people are missing out on the benefits of connection.

Digital inclusion is based on the premise that everyone should be able to make full use of digital technologies – to manage their health and wellbeing, access education and services, organise their finances, and connect with friends, family, and the world beyond.

The Australian Digital Inclusion Index (ADII) was first published in 2016, providing the most comprehensive picture of Australia’s online participation to date. The ADII measures three vital dimensions of digital inclusion: Access, Affordability, and Digital Ability. It shows how these dimensions change over time, according to people’s social and economic circumstances, as well as across geographic locations. Scores are allocated to particular geographic regions and sociodemographic groups, over a four-year period (2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017). Higher scores mean greater digital inclusion. This new ADII report incorporates data collected up to March 2017 and updates our findings from 2016.

Overall, digital inclusion is growing in Australia

Australians are spending more time – and are doing more – online. Since 2014, when data was first collected, Australia’s overall digital inclusion score has improved by 3.8 points, from 52.7 to 56.5. In 2016–2017 alone, Australia’s score rose by 2.0 points, from 54.5 to 56.5. Scores for every state and territory also increased over this period. While their individual scores increased by varying amounts, the relative ranking of states and territories remains unchanged since the 2016 report.


Table 1: Ranked scores for states and territories (ADII 2017)




Rank



State/Territory



ADII Score


Points change since 2016


Ranking change since 2016
1
ACT
59.9
+0.1
2
Victoria
57.5
+1.7
3
New South Wales
57.4
+2.5
4
Northern Territory*
56.9
+2.4
5
Western Australia
56.2
+2.1
6
Queensland
55.3
+1.8
7
South Australia
53.9
+2.4
8
Tasmania
49.7
+1.6

Australia
56.5
+2.0
* Sample <100 b="" caution.="" style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal;" treat="" with="">Source:
Roy Morgan Research, April 2016–March   2017

Access continues to improve



The gaps between digitally included and excluded Australians are substantial and widening
Across the nation, digital inclusion follows some clear economic and social contours. In general, Australians with low levels of income, education, and employment are significantly less digitally included. There is still a ‘digital divide’ between richer and poorer Australians.
In 2017, people in low income households have a digital inclusion score of 41.1, which is 27 points lower than those in high income households (68.1). Worryingly, the gap between people in low and high income households has widened over the past four years, as has the gap between older and younger Australians. Particular geographic communities are also experiencing digital exclusion. Tasmania remains Australia’s least digitally included state on 49.7 (6.8 points below the national average), followed by South Australia on 53.9 (2.6 points below).


Nationally, Digital Access has improved steadily over the past four years, from 62.2 in 2014 to 69.6 in 2017. Australians are accessing the internet more often, using an increasingly diverse range of technologies, and with larger data plans than ever before.

Digital Ability remains an area for further improvement

Nationally, all three components of Digital Ability have improved over time: Attitudes (up 4.1 points since 2014), Basic Skills (up 6.1 points), and Activities (up 4.2). However, all three have risen from a low base. Digital Ability remains an important area for attention for policy makers, business, education, and community groups interested in improving digital inclusion.

Affordability remains a challenge for some excluded groups, although value has improved

Affordability is the only sub-index to have declined since 2014, despite a slight recovery in the preceding 12 months. While the value of internet services has improved, households are spending a growing proportion of their income on them (from 1% in 2014 to 1.19% in 2017). Thus, despite increasing value, Australia’s overall Affordability score has fallen. This trend is reason for concern, particularly for people on low incomes.


Mobile-only users are less digitally included

More than four million, or one in five, Australians access the internet solely through a mobile device. This means they have a mobile phone or internet dongle with a data allowance, but no fixed connection. Mobile-only use is linked with socioeconomic factors, with people in low income households (29.8%), those who are not employed (24.0%), and those with low levels of education (27.6%) more
likely to be mobile-only. Despite the benefits of mobile internet, this group is characterised by a relatively high degree of digital exclusion. In 2017, mobile-only users have an overall ADII score of 42.3, some 14.2 points below the national average (56.5).


Table 2: Ranked scores for groups with low digital inclusion (ADII 2017)




Rank



Select Demographic



ADII Score


Points change since 2016


Ranking change since 2016
1
Household Income Q5 (Under $35k)
41.1
+1.9
2
Age 65+ years
42.9
+1.4
3
Disability
47.0
+2.2
↑1
4
Less Than Secondary Education
47.4
+2.7
↓1
5
Household Income Q4 ($35-60k)
49.3
+2.9
6
Indigenous Australians
49.5
+2.8
7
Unemployed
50.2
+2.2
8
Age 50-64 years
54.0
+1.6
9
Secondary Education
57.1
+1.6
10
Household Income Q3 ($60-100k)
57.5
+1.5

Australia
56.5
+2.0
Source: Roy Morgan Research, April 2016–March 2017


The ‘age gap’ is substantial and widening

People aged 65+ are Australia’s least digitally included age group (42.9, or 13.6 points below the national average). This ‘age gap’ has been steadily widening since 2015 (by approximately
0.5 points each year). As we explain in the section on older Australians (see p. 14), it is important to note the differences that exist amongst the diverse 65+ age group.

Women are less digitally included, particularly those aged 65+

Overall, Australian women have an ADII score 2.0 points below the score for men. While the gap between men and women is small in younger age cohorts (0.8 points for people aged 14–24; 1.0 points for those aged 25–34), the gap widens to 2.9 points in the 35–49 age group, and is largest among those aged 65+ (3.3 points).


For people with disability digital inclusion is low, but improving

Australians with disability have a low level of digital inclusion (47.0, or 9.5 points below the national average). However, nationally, their inclusion has improved steadily since 2014 (up 5.2 points), outpacing the national average increase over that period (3.8 points). It is important to note that the ADII data defines Australians with disability as those who are receiving either the disability support pension (DSP) from Centrelink, or a disability pension from the Department of Veterans’ Affairs. The ADII results therefore represent outcomes for a distinct subset of the wider community of Australians with disability.

Indigenous digital inclusion is low, but improving

Indigenous Australians also have low digital inclusion (49.5, or 7.0 points below the national average). However, their ADII score has improved by 4.5 points over four years (outpacing the national average gain of 3.8). It is important to note that the ADII data collection did not extend to remote Indigenous communities.

Some   Australians are particularly digitally excluded

The ADII points to several sociodemographic groups that are Australia’s most digitally excluded in 2017, with scores well below the national average (56.5). In ascending order, these groups are: people in low income households (41.1), people aged 65+ (42.9), people with a disability (47.0), people who did not complete secondary school (47.4), Indigenous Australians (49.5), and people not in paid employment (50.2).

Geography plays a critical role

The ADII reveals substantial differences between rural and urban areas. In 2017 digital inclusion is 7.9 points higher in capital cities (58.6) than in country areas (50.7). The overall ‘Capital–Country gap’ has narrowed slightly since 2015, from 8.5 (2015), to 8.3 (2016), to 7.9 (2017). However, this is not reflected in all states and territories. While South Australia, Western Australia, and Queensland narrowed the gap between capital city and country residents, the gap widened in Victoria, New South Wales, and Tasmania.

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This report shows just how far we are from full digital inclusion. The implications for the ADHA and the myHR are obvious.

David.

1 comment:

Anonymous said...

So looks like a far proportional number of the community will be unable to optout, best cut a deal with the post office for bulk buying stamps.